The rules of accentuation
According to it, the words are categorized into four main groups:
Acute when the phonetic accent falls on the last syllable (a- yer , or -de -na- DOR, ha- BLAR , Ma – DRID … )
Graves (also called PLAIN ) when the phonetic accent falls on the penultimate syllable (a- CEN -to , FO- ro , a- MI -go , SIES – ta , za -to -PA , CA carriage … ) .
Proparoxytone when the phonetic accent falls on the penultimate syllable (PLA -ta- no, a- ME- ri- ca , es- TU- pi -do … ) .
If the emphasis is on the word preceding syllables is called sobreesdrújula (ra -pi -di -si- ma -men- te)
The orthographic accent is always placed over a vowel , and the phonetic syllable accent.
In Castilian only how to ‘ acute accent ‘ is used , so that the only existing forms are to é í or ú .
The ‘ umlaut ‘ over the letter ‘ u’ ( ii) has a completely different meaning.
The mark on the letter ‘ñ / Ñ ‘ is not considered any kind of ‘ stress ‘, ‘ diacritical mark ‘ or anything similar. It is a self-contained, completely different from the ‘n / N’ letter.
The singular and plural forms carry the accent on the same syllable ( crime / crimes , nation / nations). There are only two exceptions to this rule: character / characters and measures / schemes .
The basic rule of orthographic accent are:
A) Acute words always accentuate your last letter is a vowel ( aeiou ), an ‘n’ or ‘ s ‘ . So , are emphasized : da-da , ma – ní , le- ng , A -ra- crete , Pa – ris , but no, yesterday , snail (not ending in a vowel , ‘n’ or ‘ s ‘ ) .
B ) Serious words are accentuated when they end in a consonant other than ‘n’ or ‘ s ‘ . So , are accentuated : I Shamrock -bol , Mar- mol, shaft , angel’s , but no helmet, type , blood, less ( ending in vowels , ‘n ‘ or ‘ s ‘ ) .
C ) The proparoxytones and sobreesdrújulas : they all emphasize : plantain , method A- ri- ca , es- you -do -pi , mur -face – the -go .
Another way to see it: We can explain the same from the opposite point of view :
A) words ending in a vowel, ‘n ‘ or ‘ s ‘ is pronounced with the accent on the penultimate syllable (za -to -PA , di -VI -de … ) . They are called ‘ flat ‘ or ‘ severe ‘ . + B) words ending in a consonant other than ‘n ‘ or ‘ s ‘ wear it on the last syllable ( see -DAD , prac -ti -CAR , Torrey vi .. . ) . They are called ‘ acute ‘ . + C ) All the words that do not follow these rules carry a written accent , which indicates where the emphasis is phonetic .
These rules are complicated somewhat when two vowels appear in a row , because sometimes it is not easy to know if they form a diphthong (ie , they are part of the same syllable ) or gap (ie , if they are in two different syllables). The rules are: The combination of a strong vowel ( aeo ) and weak ( iu ) forms a diphthong ( one syllable ) , and phonetic emphasis is on the strong vowel ( dances , closed since … ) .
Combining weak / weak form diphthong ( one syllable ) and the accent falls on the second letter ( Rui -do , we went , VIU – da … )
Two strong vowels followed can not share syllable (ma – ES- tro with -TRA -er) . Forman hiatus (two syllables) and follow guidelines .
All the words that do not follow these rules carry a written accent , which indicates where the emphasis is phonetic .
Major exceptions and special cases:
Compound words :
When a word is part of another composite as the first element of it, lose the accent he belongs : river / River Plate ; tenth / seventeenth as well : also . However, in compound adjectives linked by hyphens each element retains its pronunciation and accentuation : Hispano- Soviet critical -biographical .
Adverbs ending in ‘ -ing ‘ are exempt from the above rule : accent when they will carry the simple adjective agile / agile ; polite / politely ) .
Some words can bring accent or not depending on its meaning. The most important and simplified , are:
Still : It will take focus if it can be replaced by yet.
What, who, which , whose, where, when, how : It accentuated when an interrogative or exclamatory meet function.
This , That , the One (and its feminine and plural ) : When are personal pronouns
Only : I’ll take it meets an adverbial emphasis function ( ie , when it can only be replaced by ( for those who speak only English … only = only = alone ) .
Give : It was accentuated when a form of the verb give.
More : When it is adverb of quantity.
You, him, me : When are personal pronouns
I know : When is a form of the verb know
Yes : When it is adverb of affirmation
Tea: When referring to the infusion.
Other : There are some other minor rule , based on the verb + enclitic + compounds complement the diphthong ‘ ui ‘ , Latin words , foreign names , etc